Chandrayaan-3 Successful Soft Landing on the Moon

ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 marks India’s achievement of a soft landing on the lunar surface, making it the fourth country to do so after the US, China, and Russia. With meticulous planning and robust designs, Chandrayaan-3 underscores India’s commitment to unraveling the moon’s mysteries.

On August 5, 2023, Chandrayaan-3 entered the lunar orbit, a significant milestone in its journey. The spacecraft, through its Lander Module, established contact with Chandrayaan-2’s orbiter module, a remarkable achievement that demonstrates seamless coordination.

The landing procedure was carefully orchestrated, culminating in a successful touchdown of the rover on the moon’s surface on 23rd of August at 6:40 p.m. Recent discoveries have added to our understanding of the moon’s composition.

Video Source: The Ecomomic Times (YouTube)

Ground Breaking Discovery

The presence of sulfur and oxygen on the moon’s surface has opened avenues for further exploration and analysis. These groundbreaking findings hold the promise of shedding light on the moon’s geological history and its potential resources.

Chandrayaan-3’s mission showcases India’s prowess in space exploration and scientific discovery. It stands as a testament to ISRO’s dedication to advancing human knowledge and technological capabilities, contributing to our understanding of the cosmos.

Chandrayaan – 3 mission

India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), has been making impressive strides in space exploration. This ambitious venture aims to further unravel the secrets of the Moon’s surface and enhance our understanding of Earth’s celestial neighbor.

The Objectives of Chandrayaan 3

The Chandrayaan-3 mission is almost identical to the Chandrayaan-2 mission, which ended in failure during its last legs as the Vikram lander crash landed on the Moon’s surface. Here are the major objectives of the mission.

Scientific Research on the Moon’s Surface:

 One of the primary objectives of Chandrayaan 3 could be to conduct scientific research on the Moon’s surface, including studying its composition, mineralogy, and geology. By analyzing the data obtained from various instruments, scientists aim to gain insights into the Moon’s origin and evolution.

Characterization of Lunar Terrain: 

Chandrayaan 3 may be tasked with mapping and characterizing the lunar terrain in greater detail. High-resolution images and topographical data could help identify potential landing sites for future missions and provide a better understanding of the Moon’s surface features.

Investigating Water Ice and Volatiles: 

Lunar missions have shown evidence of water ice at the Moon’s poles. Chandrayaan 3 might be equipped to study the distribution and abundance of water and other volatile elements on the lunar surface, which could be crucial for future human exploration and potential resource utilization.

Measurement of Lunar Exosphere: 

Chandrayaan 3 may aim to study the lunar exosphere, the tenuous and thin atmosphere around the Moon. Understanding the exosphere’s composition and dynamics could provide insights into the Moon’s interaction with the solar wind and its space environment.

Lunar Seismology:

 The mission could include instruments to study moonquakes and seismic activities on the lunar surface. By analyzing these seismic events, scientists can learn more about the Moon’s interior structure and geological processes.

Technology Demonstration: 

Chandrayaan 3 might include technology demonstration experiments to test and validate new technologies that could be used in future lunar missions or other space exploration endeavors.

Components of the Mission

Propulsion Module:

The propulsion module will carry the lander and rover configuration till 100 km lunar orbit. It is a box-like structure with one large solar panel mounted on one side and a large cylinder on top that acts as a mounting structure for the lander. In addition to the lander, the module carries a payload called Spectro-polarimetry of Habitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) to study the spectral and polarimetric measurements of Earth from the lunar orbit in the near-infrared wavelength range


The lander is responsible for the soft landing on the Moon. It is also box-shaped, with four landing legs and four landing thrusters of 800 newtons each. It will carry the rover and various scientific instruments to perform in-site analysis.

The lander has three payloads:

  • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) will measure the thermal conductivity and temperature of the lunar surface.
  • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) will measure the seismicity around the landing site.
  • Langmuir Probe (LP) will estimate the plasma density and its variations.


It is a six wheeled design with a weight of 26 kilograms and a range of 500 meters (1,600 ft). The scientific instruments include cameras, spectrometers, and a drill with an expected lifespan of one lunar day(14 Earth days). The communication with the lander and ground control team is in India

The rover has two payloads:

  • Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will derive the chemical composition and infer mineralogical composition of the lunar surface.
  • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) will determine the elemental composition (Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) of lunar soil and rocks around the lunar landing site.

Launch timeline of the mission

Chandrayaan-3 was launch as scheduled from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India, on 14 July 2023 at 2:35 pm (UST). The spacecraft was placed in the orbit needed to reach the moon. The Chandrayaan-3 mission is expected to make a soft landing on the southern side of the Moon on August 23. [21] The July selection for the launch of Chandrayaan-3 is a unique move due to ISRO’s calculations of the proximity of the Earth to the Moon. [twenty two]

The upcoming event from ISRO

As ISRO’s flagship Chandrayaan-3 mission continues, let’s take a look at ISRO’s next take to the space with ADITYA-L1-2023 Estimated cost: Rs 3.78 crore.

Aditya L1 is India’s first solar-class observatory mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft is planned to be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. The main advantage of satellites placed in halo orbits around the L1 point is the continuous observation of the sun with or without a solar eclipse.

This will provide a better result than continuous monitoring of solar activity. Part Aditya L1 payload should provide important information for understanding issues such as coronal warming, coronal eruptions, pre-flare and flare activity and their properties, space climate dynamics, particle propagation studies, and interplanetary media fields. Chapter

ISRO will continue to play a number of roles to make India a space mission nation.